English Unlimited HAK 4/5, Schulbuch

Tilbury Hendra Rea Clementson Doff Goldstein Jenkins Zimpernik Donath Pope-Hoffmann English Unlimited Coursebook B2 / C1 HAK 4|5 Auch mit E-Book+ erhältlich

1. Auflage (Druck 0001) English Unlimited was originally published by Cambridge University Press © Cambridge University Press 2011 English Unlimited (öbv Version, 2nd edition) © Cambridge University Press and Österreichischer Bundesverlag Schulbuch GmbH & Co. KG 2022 www.oebv.at Alle Rechte vorbehalten. Jede Art der Vervielfältigung, auch auszugsweise, gesetzlich verboten. Schulbuchvergütung/Bildrechte: © Bildrecht GmbH/Wien Umschlagsillustrationen: Svenja Plaas, Wien Umschlaggestaltung: Petra Michel, Gestaltung & Typographie, Amberg Layout: Petra Michel, Gestaltung & Typographie, Amberg Illustrationen: Adam Silye, Wien; Kathy Baxendale, Nicholas Carn, Kate Charlesworth, Tom Croft, Maxwell Dorsey, Mark Duffin, Nick Kobyluch, Julian Mosedale, Nigel Sanderson, Sean Sims, Ben Swift, Lucy Truman Herstellung: Daniela Hochmayer, Wien Redaktion: Susanna Theuer, Wien; Jack Bourke, Cambridge; Celia Driver, Cambridge Satz: Adam Silye, Wien Druck: Ferdinand Berger & Söhne Ges.m.b.H., Horn ISBN (Cambridge) 978-1-009-18132-7 (Student’s Book, HAK, 4/5) ISBN (Cambridge) 978-1-108-77291-4 (Student’s Book + E-Book, HAK, 4/5) ISBN 978-3-209-10299-7 (English Unlimited – HAK SB 4/5 + E-Book) ISBN 978-3-209-10305-5 (English Unlimited – HAK SB 4/5 + E-BOOK+) English Unlimited HAK 4/5. Coursebook, Schülerbuch mit E-Book English Unlimited HAK 4/5. Coursebook, Schülerbuch mit E-BOOK+ Dieses Werk wurde auf der Grundlage eines zielorientierten Lehrplans verfasst. Konkretisierung, Gewichtung und Umsetzung der Inhalte erfolgen durch die Lehrerinnen und Lehrer. Die Bearbeitung erfolgte auf der Grundlage von: English Unlimited HAK/HUM 4/5, Schülerbuch mit Audio-CD und CD-ROM, Cambridge University Press und Österreichischer Bundesverlag Schulbuch GmbH & Co. KG, 1. Auflage 2015, ISBN 978-3-209-07535-2 (Autorinnen und Autoren: Alex Tilbury, Leslie Anne Hendra, David Rea, Theresa Clementson, Adrian Doff, Ben Goldstein; Waltraud Donath, Liselotte Pope-Hoffmann; unter Mitwirkung von Rob Metcalf, Chris Cavey, Alison Greenwood, Maggie Baigent, Bernd Mayr & Heike Mlakar) Liebe Schülerin, lieber Schüler, Sie bekommen dieses Schulbuch von der Republik Österreich für Ihre Ausbildung. Bücher helfen nicht nur beim Lernen, sondern sind auch Freunde fürs Leben. Kopierverbot Wir weisen darauf hin, dass das Kopieren zum Schulgebrauch aus diesem Buch verboten ist – § 42 Abs. 6 Urheberrechtsgesetz: „Die Befugnis zur Vervielfältigung zum eigenen Schulgebrauch gilt nicht für Werke, die ihrer Beschaffenheit und Bezeichnung nach zum Schul- oder Unterrichtsgebrauch bestimmt sind.“ Nur zu Prüfzwecken – Eigentum des Verlags öbv

www.oebv.at Alex Tilbury Leslie Anne Hendra David Rea Theresa Clementson Adrian Doff Ben Goldstein Barry Jenkins Andrea Zimpernik Waltraud Donath Liselotte Pope-Hoffmann With contributions by Rob Metcalf, Chris Cavey, Alison Greenwood, Maggie Baigent, Bernd Mayr & Heike Mlakar Course consultant: Adrian Doff Coursebook · B2/C1 4/5 HAK Nur zu Prüfzwecken – Eigentum des Verlags öbv

2 Contents Immigration, diversity and inclusion Goals Language focus Listening Speaking „„talk about migration, diversity and inclusion „„say how you feel about past events in your life „„write a blog comment „„make deductions about the past „„describe strong feelings „„talk about cultural awareness „„write a leaflet „„write a questionnaire / do a survey „„Reflecting on the past „„Migration „„Making deductions about the past „„Describing strong feelings „„Languages „„Nadine and Akram talking about their experiences „„Cross-cultural experiences „„Cultural awareness in business „„Languages in India and the Netherlands „„Diversity „„Things you did recently „„Cross-cultural misunderstandings „„Diversity in school „„Languages „„Explore speaking: Diversity in EU countries Global issues Goals Language focus Listening Speaking „„interpret maps and facts „„make comparisons and talk about changes „„talk about nutrition and the global food economy „„discuss an issue „„take turns in a discussion „„write a leaflet „„write a blog post „„talk about poverty as a global economic problem „„Differences and changes „„Interpreting meaning „„Talking about the future „„Types of food „„Changes and trends „„Taking turns in a discussion „„consist, include „„Two people talking about the maps of the world „„Health campaigns „„Interpreting a map „„The world in 2050 „„Your familiy’s food „„Technology and food production „„Discuss an issue „„Health campaigns „„Explore speaking: Poverty Entrepreneurship Goals Language focus Listening Speaking „„talk about people’s success „„write a letter to the editor „„give advice about an interest or an occupation „„write a letter or an email of application „„talk about statistics „„carry out a survey and write a report „„write a memo „„make and justify recommendations „„propose a venue for an event „„plan a virtual event „„Routes to success „„Giving advice „„Giving statistics „„Collocations „„Recommending and justifying „„How to start a business „„Vicki’s customer survey „„Proposing a team-building event „„Explore listening: Improving the business environment „„What it takes to succeed „„Advice about an interest or a hobby „„A customer survey „„Events management „„Hallmark events „„Presenting a venue „„Explore speaking: Entrepreneurship The world we live in Goals Language focus Listening Speaking „„talk about political events „„explain the benefits of something „„describe experiences of problem solving „„describe issues and priorities „„talk about dedicated people and their achievements „„persuade others to take action „„write a fundraising letter or email „„Expressions with prepositions and adverbs „„Describing benefits „„Problem-solving experiences „„Using the -ing form „„Achievements of important people „„Persuasive language „„Taking part in MUN „„A talk about Malala Yousafzai „„Explore listening: Hipsters save the world „„The United Nations „„Summarising information „„Discussing issues and priorities „„Dedicated people „„A subject for a documentary „„Two campaigns „„Present a campaign Semester check: Units 1–4 Unit 1 7th semester p. 9 p. 20 Unit 2 p. 32 Unit 3 p. 46 Unit 4 p. 57 Nur zu Prüfzwecken – Eigentum des Verlags öbv

3 Reading Writing Extras Explore „„Migration, immigration, emigration „„Cross-cultural misunderstandings „„Business etiquette in different cultures „„A blog comment on immigration „„A web posting about a cross-cultural misunderstanding „„A leaflet about business etiquette in Austria „„A questionnaire „„Across cultures: Languages „„Speaking: Diversity in EU countries Reading Writing Extras Explore „„Maps of the world „„Nutrition transition „„The global food economy „„Explore reading and writing: Rich and poor „„Describing a map „„A leaflet giving health tips for travelling „„Explore reading and writing: Rich and poor „„Across cultures: Health campaigns „„Speaking: Poverty „„Explore reading and writing: Rich and poor Reading Writing Extras Explore „„Nature vs. nuture „„The Prince’s Trust „„Events management „„Venues for an event „„A letter to the editor about success in life „„An email about an interest or a hobby „„An application to the Prince’s Trust „„A report about survey results „„Proposing a venue to a customer „„Info point: Planning a virtual trade show „„Listening: Improving the business environment „„Speaking: Entrepreneurship Reading Writing Extras Explore „„Making a difference „„International organisations „„Three NGOs „„Homeless world cup „„A protest movement „„Problem-solving experiences „„A subject for a documentary „„Explore writing: Write a fundraising letter „„Writing: Write a fundraising letter „„Listening: Hipsters save the world p. 18 p. 29 p. 44 p. 54 Nur zu Prüfzwecken – Eigentum des Verlags öbv

4 It’s an online world Goals Language focus Listening Speaking „„talk about knowledge and technology „„discuss how to access information „„write a blog comment „„talk about learning computer skills „„write a report „„talk about copyright and piracy „„explain how to do something „„write an online article „„Talking about information and knowledge „„Participle clauses „„Pros and cons of modern technology „„The Hole in the Wall project „„Technology in different parts of the world „„Finding out information „„Computer skills „„Technology in Austria „„Explore speaking: Copyright and piracy Work, work, work Goals Language focus Listening Speaking „„assess the importance of work „„analyse changes in the world of work „„write an article „„write a blog post and a blog comment „„talk about things you’re good at „„describe and evaluate skills „„report what people say „„write a letter of application „„Related words „„Work „„Transferable skills „„Patterns after reporting verbs „„The future of work „„Difficulties finding a job „„Things you’re good at „„The distribution of jobs in different economic sectors „„New forms of employment „„Unemployment „„Transferable skills „„Interview experiences „„A memorable experience Companies Goals Language focus Listening Speaking „„talk about corporate identity and company culture „„write a blog post „„write a blog comment „„identify management styles „„make your case in a disagreement „„talk about dealing with conflict „„negotiate a formal agreement „„write a formal email „„Talking about a company „„Making your case „„Verbs with adverbs and prepositions „„Negotiating an agreement „„Multi-word verbs with put „„An example of corporate identity „„Yousef talks to his manager „„Caitlin negotiating for compensation „„Opinions about what went wrong „„Explore listening: Negotiation styles „„Corporate identity and company culture „„Management styles „„Compromises „„Conflict management „„Negotiating an agreement Saving the world Goals Language focus Listening Speaking „„talk about climate change „„describe inventions and how they work „„discuss proposals „„describe an ongoing process „„say if actions are justified „„report and react to a point of view „„conduct a debate „„write a blog post „„write a report „„Climate change „„Active and passive infinitives „„Present progressive active and passive „„Adverb / adjective collocations „„Saying if actions are justified „„Reporting / reacting to a point of view „„Fighting global warming „„The Doomsday debate „„Explore listening: Meat consumption and the environment „„Proposals to combat climate change „„Compare and contrast pictures „„Transport „„Conduct a debate „„Present an environmental problem „„Explore speaking: A greener alternative? Semester check: Units 5–8 Unit 5 8th semester p. 62 p. 74 Unit 6 p. 86 Unit 7 p. 97 Unit 8 p. 108 Nur zu Prüfzwecken – Eigentum des Verlags öbv

5 Reading Writing Extras Explore „„The end of general knowledge? „„An interview about the Hole in the Wall „„Explore reading: Online banking „„A blog comment on accessing information „„Explore writing: – A report about online banking – An online article on how to do something „„Across cultures: Technology „„Info point: Banks and banking services „„Reading: Online banking „„Writing: – A report about online banking – An online article on how to do something „„Speaking: Copyright and piracy Reading Writing Extras Explore „„Changes in the world of work „„Women and work „„The job interview: Things not to say and do „„Explore reading: Choosing a career „„An article about the employment situation of women in Austria „„A blog post and a blog comment about unemployment „„Explore writing: A letter of application „„Writing: A letter of application „„Reading: Choosing a career Reading Writing Extras Explore „„A corporate blog „„Real professionals: The mediator „„A blog post describing a company „„A blog comment „„An email reporting a compromise „„Explore writing: An email suggesting improvements „„Writing: An email suggesting improvements „„Listening: Negotiation styles Reading Writing Extras Explore „„Ideas to fight global warming „„The Sermilik fjord in Greenland „„Transport „„Unplugging from the grid „„A blog post on transport issues „„Explore writing: – A blog post on alternative lifestyles – A report on transport „„Across cultures: Living ‘off-grid’ „„Writing: – A blog post on alternative lifestyles – A report on transport „„Listening: Meat consumption and the environment „„Speaking: A greener alternative? p. 70 p. 83 p. 95 p. 105 Nur zu Prüfzwecken – Eigentum des Verlags öbv

6 It’s all about advertising Goals Language focus Listening Speaking „„discuss brands „„describe effects and influences „„talk about the image and qualities of products „„talk about advertising and marketing „„describe an advertisement „„deliver a sales talk „„write a press release „„write a leaflet „„Effects and influences „„Image and qualities „„Advertising media „„Marketing words „„Multi-word expressions „„Promotional language „„Brands „„A viral video „„Brand images „„Advertising media „„Present an advertisement „„Global advertising „„Viral ads and the internet „„A sales talk Trading with the world Goals Language focus Listening Speaking „„talk about import and export „„present a company „„write a report „„talk about changes in trade „„write a blog post „„explain what fair trade is „„describe the effects of globalisation „„write an article „„discuss CSR „„Talking about trade „„-ing form or to + infinitive „„Corporate Social Responsibility „„Successful Austrian companies: Zotter „„Causes of globalisation „„Explore listening: Global companies and consumer behaviour „„Austria’s imports and exports „„A company presentation „„Globalisation „„Global companies „„Offshoring Tourism Goals Language focus Listening Speaking „„talk about developments in tourism „„support an argument „„present new trends „„talk about business travel „„organise a talk „„give information about important sights „„write an email „„write a leaflet „„deal with complaints „„Supporting an argument „„Organising a talk „„Describing a landmark „„The history of tourism „„Trends in tourism „„Business trips „„Working in customer services „„Things to see in the Beijing area „„Explore listening: Trends in tourism „„Describe a graph „„Support an argument „„Present a new trend „„Customer surveys „„Give a factual talk „„A talk about sights, history and culture „„Explore speaking: A talk about a language holiday Semester check: Units 9–11 Me and the world Goals Language focus Listening Speaking „„Talk about personality traits „„talk about identity „„promote myself „„use effective introduction strategies „„conduct a job interview „„talk about future plans „„write a letter of application „„Presenting a self-image „„self- „„Talking about identity „„Introduction strategies „„Interview questions „„Recruitment „„What defines you? „„Introducing yourself „„Recruitment in different countries „„Voluntary work „„Explore listening: Volunteer work „„Your online self „„What defines you? „„Conduct a job interview „„Your future plans „„Gap year activities „„Explore speaking: Volunteer work Business communication Preparing for final exams Goals „„take part in trade fairs write invoices and cover letters „„deal with orders write reminders „„understand Incoterms make complaints and write adjustment letters „„Reading „„Listening „„Writing „„Speaking p. 112 Unit 9 9th semester p. 124 Unit 10 p. 135 Unit 11 p. 147 p. 152 Unit 12 10th semester p. 164 B p. 178 Nur zu Prüfzwecken – Eigentum des Ve lags öbv

7 Reading Writing Extras Explore „„Advertising techniques „„Global advertising „„Viral advertising „„A press release „„Explore reading: Trends in advertising „„A press release „„Explore writing: Using advertising language in a leaflet „„Across cultures: Megabrands „„Writing: Using advertising language in a leaflet „„Reading: Learn from the most persuasive adverts Reading Writing Extras Explore „„Austria’s imports and exports „„International trade „„Globalisation „„Ethical labels „„Two articles about working conditions „„Explore reading: Corporate social justice „„A report on Austria’s exports „„A blog post about international trade „„An article about globalisation „„Listening: Global companies and consumer behaviour „„Reading: Corporate social justice Reading Writing Extras Explore „„The Travel and Tourism industry „„Business travellers „„The Vienna State Opera „„Explore writing: – An email and a leaflet recommending an eco-tour – A complaint and an adjustment letter/email „„Info point: Cultural tourism „„Listening: Trends in tourism „„Writing: – An email / leaflet recommending an eco-tour – A formal letter / email dealing with a complaint „„Speaking: A talk about a language holiday Reading Writing Extras Explore „„Your online self „„Human Resources Assistant „„Preparing for a job interview abroad „„Gap year „„An application for a placement with the Austrian Service Abroad „„Explore writing: A letter of application „„Listening: Volunteer work „„Speaking: Volunteer work „„Writing: A letter of application p. 194 Writing guide p. 221 Vocabulary p. 206 Activities p. 235 Key Semester Check p. 121 p. 132 p. 143 p. 162 Nur zu Prüfzwecken – Eigentum des Verlags öbv

8 How to use this coursebook Each unit of this book is designed to help you achieve specific communicative GOALS . These goals are listed at the beginning of each unit. They are based on the language-learning goals stated in the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR). The first pages of each unit help you develop your language skills and knowledge. These pages include SPEAKING, LISTENING, READING, WRITING and LANGUAGE FOCUS , with key language highlighted in blue. They are followed by a communicative speaking or writing task which will help you activate what you have learned. The Extras section of each unit contains Across cultures and / or an Info point providing more specialised, HAK-relevant information and terminology. The Extras section is modular in nature and doesn’t have to be dealt with at the point where it occurs in the unit. In the Explore section of each unit you practise the task formats which you will encounter in the Standardisierte Reife- und Diplomprüfung. This section may also provide additional language and skills work, aiming to help you become a better communicator in English. Each unit concludes with a Self-assessment grid in which you are encouraged to measure your progress against the unit goals set out at the beginning. You can complete this grid either in class or at home. This section Business communication introduces different types of oral and written communication as they are used in business contexts. Audios and sample texts provide examples of authentic business English; speaking and writing tasks help you practise what you have learned. The final volume of English Unlimited contains the extra part Preparing for final exams and a Writing guide with sample texts to help you pass the Standardisierte Reife- und Diplomprüfung. At the back of the book, there is a Vocabulary with English sample sentences and German translations. Go to www.oebv.at and type in the code for additional online materials. Media tasks are tasks which train your digital competence. Business training are tasks which train business communication and competence. This audio is on the teacher’s CD. This audio is available online. Go to www.oebv.at and enter the code. Certain exercises have been marked this way to indicate that they are more challenging and/or are an optional consolidation exercise. If you see this icon next to the page number in your book, you can listen to audios on your smartphone or tablet. Ó Android iOS Scan the QR code and download the app. Then scan the cover of your Coursebook. To play an audio, scan the page or select the audio from the list of media shown in the app. Nur zu Prüfzwecken – Eigentum des Verlags öbv

Ó kz72ct Diversity – challenge or blessing? Work in groups. Global mobility is changing societies. Diversity and inclusion are more important than ever. Have you heard the terms below? If yes, in what context? If not, guess their meanings. Do you think they have positive or negative connotations? In pairs, go online and use a dictionary to get definitions of the terms listed. Compare your findings in class. With your partner, look at the pictures and choose terms from above that you think can be applied to the situations. Describe the pictures and explain your choice of terms in class. Example: We have chosen the terms inclusion and prejudice for the picture showing the nurse because old people should be included in society more. Unfortunately, many people have prejudices against the elderly … a Speaking 1 b c Discuss these questions using the new terminology. 1 How are societies, countries, lifestyles and working conditions changing? 2 What do diversity and inclusion at the workplace mean for you? Have you experienced any challenging situations during your internships? If so, how was it solved? 3 Can you think of possible negative aspects of diversity and inclusion? Find out about diversity and inclusion programmes in Austria and put together a 3-minute presentation on one of them. In your presentation, you should: ■■ outline the diversity programme you have chosen ■■ analyse data and statistics related to it ■■ assess benefits and gains for the citizens involved Write a handout for your presentation. b Writing & Speaking 2 a b diversity in the workplace multicultural competence discrimination prejudice hate crime xenophobia immigration inclusion 9 1 Unit Immigration, diversity and inclusion „„describe strong feelings „„talk about cultural awareness „„write a leaflet „„write a questionnaire / do asurvey Goals „„talk about migration, diversity and inclusion „„say how you feel about past events in your life „„write a blog comment „„make deductions about the past Nur zu Prüfzwecken – Eigentum des Verlags öbv

Immigration Do you know anyone who’s moved from one country to another? What were their reasons? How did it make them feel? Talk together. Now listen to Nadine and Akram talking about their experiences. Answer these questions for each person. 1 Where are they from, and where do they live now? 2 Why did they decide to emigrate? 3 What is their status in their country of choice? 4 How do they feel now? Look at the sentences. Five of them are from the recording. Who said them? 1 I regret causing them so much anxiety. 2 I don’t regret my decision, … + noun or -ing form 3 I’m sorry I missed your talk yesterday. 4 I’m not sorry I did it. 5 We were so glad we were in Europe. 6 Actually, it’s a good thing they caught us. + past simple 7 I only wish I had done it before. 8 If only there had been a school or something. + past perfect Which highlighted expressions can you use for: 1 A positive feelings? B negative feelings? 2 A things that really happened? B imaginary situations? Think of three or four things you did recently, for example: ■■ buying something ■■ going to an event ■■ meeting someone ■■ giving advice ■■ saying something ■■ throwing something away Write a sentence saying how you feel now about each thing. Use expressions from 5a. Talk in pairs. Tell each other about the things you did recently and how you feel about them now. Ask questions to find out more. Example: A: I bought a new computer last month. I’m completely broke now but I don’t regret it at all! B: Oh, right. What kind of computer is it? In pairs or small groups, read the statements about immigration and talk about them. 1 Do you think immigration and integration have become more important issues in Austria since the arrival of large numbers of refugees in 2015/16? Why? / Why not? 2 Which of the statements are relevant for Austria? Find examples and discuss. Listening 3 a b Language focus Reflecting on the past 4 a b Speaking 5 a b c Reading 6 a The last few decades have seen a rapid growth in immigration almost everywhere. The increasing movement of people from country to country ■■ makes citizens fret about workplaces, wages, housing and cultural identity. ■■ helps populist rabble-rousers to exploit voters’ fears. ■■ makes governments tighten immigration laws. ■■ inspires people traffickers to invent ever more irresponsible methods to smuggle people across borders. 3my4kk 1 10 Language skills Extras Explore 1 Immigration, diversity and inclusion Nur zu Prüfzwecken – Eigentum des Verlags öbv

Read the first part of a report on immigration from the website of a European think tank and answer the following questions. 1 What are the reasons for people migrating? 2 What is the difference between emigration in the past and nowadays? 3 Which factors are decisive for a successful integration of immigrants? 4 Why is it important to integrate the children and grandchildren of immigrants? b https://www.mobility.com Migration, immigration, emigration The majority of migrants are neither adventurers nor welfare scroungers or profiteers after economic gains; nor are they necessarily the poorest of the poor. The decision to emigrate and leave one’s home country and, often, one’s family, is not easy; it requires courage, desperation or both. Even though a lot of migration takes place within countries – from country to town, agriculture to industry – the number of international migrants has been rising in recent years. International migrants – people who have lived outside their home countries for a year or more - account for more than 3.5% of the world population, with numbers rising. The estimates are based on official national statistics that are regularly published by the United Nations. Before the COVID-19 crisis in 2020, those who move temporarily, either to study or to work abroad or as tourists, were a fast-growing group. Despite a 60% decline in international tourism in 2020, particularly young people will continue to be mobile. Why do people move? Push and pull factors ■ ■ People move in search of security and freedom, away from political or religious persecution, natural catastrophes, war or corruption. An example of this was the brain drain from Germany and Austria when Jewish scientists fled from persecuction in the 1930s. ■ ■ They hope for better lives and chances for their children. ■ ■ They seek economic gains. The wages paid for the same work in different parts of the world differ much more than the prices of goods, for example. The higher the income disparity between two countries or regions, the stronger the incentive to migrate. ■ ■ An existing network of family or friends in the country of destination makes the decision to leave easier. Certain nationalities cluster in certain countries or areas, like e.g. Chinese immigrants in the Toronto and Vancouver areas of Canada or the large influx of Algerians into France, a phenomenon known as demographic balkanisation. Settling in / integration Due to modern means of transport and communication, today’s migrants are able to keep strong links to their countries of origin, making emigration no longer as irrevocable as it used to be. The question of integration – settling into a new culture – is equally difficult. Often participating in both cultures and cultivating both their mother tongue and the language spoken in the host country, modern migrants are considered ‘transmigrants’ by immigration experts who describe them as ‘transnational identities’. Border areas where people commute between countries – e.g. the border region between Austria, Slovakia and Hungary – are referred to as ‘transnational spaces.’ As soon as people are ready to cut the link with their country of origin and settle in their country of choice for good, integration becomes an issue. People generally agree that the key to economic and social integration is language. Mastering the language of the host country undoubtedly boosts the earning power of immigrants. The second most important factor is education and schooling, which is essential for the integration of second and third generation immigrants. The better educated and skilled the immigrant parents are, and the higher their linguistic competence in the language spoken in the host country is, the better their performance at school and, later, the employment opportunities of their children. Future generations With unemployment, petty crime and religious fundamentalism on the rise among second-generation immigrants – and with right-wing political groups playing on the fears of the native population – the integration of immigrants’ children and grandchildren will be the biggest challenge of future policies. Language skills Extras Explore 1 Immigration, diversity and inclusion 11 Nur zu Prüfzwecken – Eigentum des Verlags öbv

Read the report again. Talk about the highlighted terms and expressions and try to explain them in your own words. Look them up in a dictionary to check your explanations. Put together a wordlist, adding sample sentences and German equivalents if necessary. Talk together. Can you think of advantages and disadvantages that immigration entails for both sending and receiving countries? Work in A/B pairs. A, read the second part of the report on immigration on this page. Complete the text with the words below, then make a list of challenges and benefits for receiving countries. B, read and complete the third part of the report on p. 206. List the challenges and benefits for sending countries. Language focus Migration 7 a b c Compare and discuss your lists. Explain the new vocabulary to your partner. Then try to think of some more benefits or challenges together. On mobility.com you came across the following blog post. Do you agree? Write a blog comment (around 250 words) in reply. Use as many new words on immigration as you can. 1 Writing guide, Blog comment, p. 196. d Writing 8 a asylum legal native student receiving demographic immigrants illegally RECEIVING COUNTRIES All over the world citizens’ attitudes towards newcomers have become less welcoming partly due to the growth of terrorism and the increasing number of refugees due to long-lasting conflicts like the war in Syria. Among the challenges for (1) countries is the issue of managing the influx of migrants, e.g. by deciding how many would-be-immigrants to admit and which ones; Canada, for example, admits (2) on the basis of points awarded for education, skills, language and youth. Another issue is the integration of potential immigrants. Among (3) immigrants, people seeking permanent employment make up a minority; the biggest group is relatives of people already in the country; another way of legal entry is (4) claims or coming to a country on a student visa. However, in an atmosphere of restrictive immigration policies, many people see no other way than to come (5) by overstaying their tourist or (6) visa, by crossing borders illegally or by using the services of professional people traffickers. While there is disagreement among experts about immigrants’ contribution to or strain on a country’s government funds, there is no doubt about their positive impact on a country’s age structure. Considering the (7) developments in industrialised countries – a lot of which will face declining populations by 2050 – immigration is a way of buying youth. As for job losses among the (8) population, the only group whose jobs immigration seems to affect, is the low-skilled. Quite often immigrants tend to compete on the job market with other immigrants who came before, whilst they complement rather than substitute native-born workers. Dr J. Warren, Liverpool | 12 November Economic experts maintain that immigration is here to stay despite pandemics and ever harsher regulations. The increasing mobility of people is part of our globalised world and economy. Immigration is simply a question of supply and demand. As long as the rich world creates jobs, workers from poor countries will keep pouring in to fill them and immigration makes economic sense. Due to aging populations and a sinking birthrate in advanced economies, immigration is increasingly becoming an economic necessity. Moreover, well-qualified immigrants are the quickest and easiest way to fill the skills-gap. Reply Work in pairs: compare and correct your texts and write a new blog comment together. b 12 Language skills Extras Explore 1 Immigration, diversity and inclusion Nur zu Prüfzwecken – Eigentum des Verlags öbv

Cross-cultural experiences: One side of the story … Listen to the stories. Which person in each picture is telling the story? Listen again. Picture 1 1 Why did Vic and his wife take Neil to dinner? 2 How did the evening suddenly change? Picture 2 3 What was the party like? 4 What did Daniela do at the party? Picture 3 5 How did Haneul act when Virginia greeted her? 6 How did she act later at home? Listening 9 a b Now add these expressions to the diagram. may have could have couldn’t have What form of the verb is used after have? b c Neil Vic 1 Madison Daniela 2 Haneul Virginia 3 Read the sentences from the stories, then add the highlighted expressions to the diagram. ■■ It can’t have been because I paid. He knew I was going to. ■■ He might have been a bit angry. It’s hard to say. ■■ I think she must have felt homesick. ■■ She may well have forgotten what I looked like. Language focus Making deductions about the past 10 a I’m sure it’s not true. It’s possible. It’s very possible. I’m sure it’s true. 1 3 6 7 2 4 5 8bw4wr 2 Language skills Extras Explore 1 Immigration, diversity and inclusion 13 Nur zu Prüfzwecken – Eigentum des Verlags öbv

Read the sentences about Vic’s story. Rewrite the marked sentence parts using an expression from 10 which has the same meaning. 1 There’s no way that Neil was unhappy with the meal. He really enjoyed it. 2 Maybe he felt a bit ill after eating too much. 3 It’s possible the waiter made a mistake in the bill, and Neil noticed it. 4 Or perhaps Vic said something that upset Neil. 5 But obviously the waiter was upset about something, too. 6 There’s a good chance Neil was embarrassed by the waiter’s strange expression. In pairs, talk about the other two situations. Use expressions from 10 to speculate about why Daniela and Haneul acted as they did. Compare your ideas. How many different ideas did you get? …and the other Read the postings on the webpage Cross-cultural misunderstandings. What were the real reasons that Neil, Daniela and Haneul acted and felt as they did? 11 Speaking 12 a b Reading 13 a How would you have felt in these situations? What would you have done? b Cross-cultural misunderstandings your comments Neil, Canada Last summer, some English friends of mine flew over to spend a couple of weeks in Toronto. On their last evening here, they invited me out to dinner. I chose a popular Moroccan place called The Casablanca, and Vic and Esther were really (1) delighted with it – but then Vic only left a five-dollar tip for the waiter! The bill was almost $150 and in Canada, it’s normal to leave a 15% tip, sometimes even 20%. The waiter looked (2) appalled – he must have thought we were really unhappy about something! I didn’t want to embarrass Vic by putting more money on the table, so in the end, I quietly gave the waiter another $10 as we were leaving and that was that. Daniela, Colombia When I came to Australia a couple of years ago, I was really (3) intrigued by all the cultural differences I noticed, but as you can imagine, it took a while to get used to certain things. I particularly remember a party I went to soon after I got here – my first party in Australia. The people were friendly and the food was wonderful, but all the time I kept thinking, “Where’s the music? When does the dancing start?” Where I come from, a party isn’t a party without music and dancing! But nothing happened, and I left early, which probably wasn’t very polite, but I just felt so (4) out of place. Haneul, Korea This happened a few years ago. I had an Italian friend, and she’d arranged to come and see me in Seoul, so naturally I went to meet her at the airport. When she saw me, she screamed my name and ran over and hugged me and kissed me on both cheeks. I felt absolutely (5) mortified! Kissing and hugging in public is not how people usually behave here! People were staring at us, and some children were even laughing, but my friend didn’t seem to notice, so she must have been (6) baffled by my cold reaction. There was nothing wrong with what she did, but I couldn’t handle it at the time. 14 Language skills Extras Explore 1 Immigration, diversity and inclusion Nur zu Prüfzwecken – Eigentum des Verlags öbv

Which of the highlighted expressions in the postings have a similar meaning to A–F? A alone, not part of a group? D extremely embarrassed? B very pleased? E very interested? C very confused? F extremely shocked and upset? Now match more words with the meanings in 14a. 1 fascinated 3 humiliated 5 mystified 2 horrified 4 isolated 6 thrilled Think of an incident from your life when there was a cross-cultural misunderstanding, for example when you were: ■■ on holiday ■■ shopping abroad ■■ with family or friends ■■ in a relationship ■■ eating out ■■ … Think about how to: ■■ describe what happened. ■■ speculate about why it happened. ■■ describe your feelings. Listen to each other’s stories. Do you agree with each other’s speculations? Can you suggest any other explanations? Contribute a posting to the website cross-cultural misunderstandings. Write around 150 words. Cultural awareness Language focus Describing strong feelings 14 a b Speaking 15 a b Writing 16 What is ‘culture’? What factors play a significant part in creating culture? Would you agree that the above pictures illustrate different aspects of culture? If yes, which ones? What is ‘cultural awareness’ and why is it especially important for business people? Talk together and find at least three arguments. Listen to the interview with Dave Allen, managing director of Culture and Business Ltd, a company offering training in intercultural and diversity management. 1 How does Dave Allen explain cultural awareness? 2 Why is it so important for business people? 3 What do people learn in Dave Allen’s courses? 4 How will companies profit from diversity-in-the-workplace training? Listening 17 a b c b6a5en 3 Language skills Extras Explore 1 Immigration, diversity and inclusion 15 Nur zu Prüfzwecken – Eigentum des Verlags öbv

Work in groups of three. Student A, read the tips below. Student B, read the tips on p. 208. Student C, read the tips on p. 212. Tell the others in your group about your tips. Reading 18 a Media task. Work in pairs. Go online and research alternative contactless ways of greeting that have developed due to the Covid pandemic. Compare your findings in class. b These tips on business etiquette in Asia could affect your level of success when dealing with Eastern cultures Greeting and addressing people Even though Covid has reduced physical contact, ways of greeting globally involve touching each other. The popular handshake has received some alternatives such as the footshake or the elbow bump. Nevertheless, shaking hands is a Western custom that is also quite common when doing business in Asia. So, if someone extends his or her hand, shake it immediately – not too firm, not too long and not with excessive pumping. Remember that Muslim women will not shake hands with men. In Japan, nod your head respectfully when shaking, but do not attempt to bow unless you have been properly coached – you will look ridiculous. Never assume that you can address people on a first-name basis until you are invited to. Instead, stick with the more formal title of ‘Mr.’ or ‘Ms.’ Always be on time for your appointments and meetings to show respect. As the pace of business is different in Asia, always plan lots of time for meetings and plenty of leeway between them. In India, and especially the Philippines, try not to overschedule yourself. Expect delays but do not be the cause of them. Present your business card Use two hands when offering your business card to a customer from Asia, and do the same when receiving theirs. Take a moment or two to examine the card, acknowledge it, then place it on the table in front of you or in a business card holder. Don’t put it in your back pocket and never write on a business card – doing so might offend your client. If you’re conducting a lot of business in a particular country, consider having your card printed in both English and their language. Be suitably suited Avoid an unintentional insult. Dress in a business suit for all meetings and conferences. Be aware of the climate. In India or the Philippines it’s very hot, so make sure to wear lightweight but smart clothes. Ask about appropriate attire for social events. Jeans might not be considered acceptable even if the dress code is casual. Recognise and honour local practices. In many Asian countries, you will be expected to remove your shoes before entering certain buildings, restaurants or rooms. Buy new socks before your trip and always carry an extra pair with you. It won’t do to have stained socks or socks with holes in them. Buy the right gifts Do your research beforehand to determine what kind of gift, if any, is appropriate. Forget about anything made of pigskin in Muslim countries and avoid giving things that come in sets of four in China (as the number four signifies death). In Indonesia, it’s inappropriate to bring a gift to your first meeting, while most Japanese companies appreciate a gift that everyone in the office can enjoy, such as a box of chocolates. Apologise when it’s expected If you think you may have offended someone, apologise. Not doing so will harm your career far more than the apology will hurt your ego. And remember: your sense of humour may not travel well across cultures. Leave your jokes at home so you won’t have to apologise later for causing offence. These tips will help you to develop strong professional bonds in Asia. If you are willing to increase your business travel, you will boost your image and your career enormously. 16 Language skills Extras Explore 1 Immigration, diversity and inclusion Nur zu Prüfzwecken – Eigentum des Verlags öbv

Write an information leaflet for foreigners on business etiquette in Austria (around 250 words). Make sure you mention the following areas: ■■ professional dealings ■■ small talk and socialising ■■ dress code ■■ any other issues you consider noteworthy or important Do a survey to establish the diversity factor of your school. Put together a questionnaire to find out facts and figures related to gender, nationality, mother tongue and religion of students at your school. ■■ Do your survey in small groups, allocating a certain number of classes to each group. ■■ Exchange the information gleaned from the questionnaires, combine your findings and put together a poster presentation. ■■ Finally, discuss the results. (Are they surprising/what you had expected/typical of Austrian schools?) Writing 19 Writing & Speaking 20 Across cultures: Languages More than half the words of modern English have been adopted from other languages. In groups, guess which language each of these words came from. a Speaking 21 alphabet boss cotton hamburger ketchup marriage opera plaza robot sauna ski shampoo tsunami yoghurt Arabic Cantonese Czech Dutch Finnish French German Greek Hindi Italian Japanese Norwegian Spanish Turkish Check your ideas on p. 209, then talk together. 1 Do you know if your language has given any words to English? Which words? 2 What languages have given words to your first language? Give examples. You’re going to listen to Sahana and Liesbeth talking about languages in India and the Netherlands. What do you know about languages in these countries? Listen to Sahana and Liesbeth. What do they say about these questions? 1 What languages are spoken? Where? 2 What about language learning in schools? Listen to Sahana and Liesbeth saying more about their languages. Which three of these questions do they answer? 1 How has the language changed in the last fifty years? 2 How do people feel about: gestures? volume? silence? interrupting? 3 How do people feel about changes in the language? 4 How have languages been important in the history of the country? 5 What are or were the most popular languages for people to learn? 6 How would you describe the character of the language? Listen again. Note down two or three details about the answers to each of the three questions. Compare your notes. b Listening 22 a b c b c39b4q 4 nm5rm4 5 17 Language skills Extras Explore 1 Immigration, diversity and inclusion Nur zu Prüfzwecken – Eigentum des Verlags öbv

How do the expressions in each group 1–4 differ in meaning? Do any have the same meaning? 1 a language a dialect an accent 2 an official language a regional language a common language 3 a mother tongue a first language a second language 4 monolingual bilingual multilingual Prepare to talk about languages (or dialects) where you live or in another place you know. 1 Choose questions to talk about from 22b and c. 2 Plan what to say about each topic, using language from 23 to help you. Listen to each other’s talks. ■■ If you’re from the same place, do you agree with each other’s ideas? ■■ If you’re from different places, which facts do you think would be the most interesting or significant for a visitor? Write a handout for your presentation. Think about what additional information, links and pictures would be useful on the handout. Language focus Languages 23 a Speaking 24 b c Explore speaking: Diversity in EU countries Topic area: Diversity Focus: Immigration in Austria / cultural awareness Situation: You are an exchange student in an English-speaking country. You are taking part in a student project dealing with diversity in education and business life. The purpose of the project is to produce a general overview of immigration and diversity in EU member countries. Individual long turn (4–5 minutes): You have been asked to talk about the present immigration situation in Austria. Study the graph on the right. Use this information in your presentation to: ■■ outline what different nationalities live in Austria ■■ speculate about reasons why they leave their home countries ■■ evaluate the effects of immigration on immigrants and the native population 25 Anzahl der Ausländer in Österreich nach Staatsangehörigkeiten, Jahresbeginn 2021 Deutschland Rumänien Serbien Türkei Ungarn Kroatien Polen Syrien Slowakei 208.767 131.788 122.116 117.551 97.015 91.396 89.002 65.597 55.256 45.378 25.000 50.000 75.000 100.000 125.000 150.000 175.000 200.000 225.000 250.000 Anzahl der Ausländer Quelle: Statistik Austria © Statista 2021 0 Bosnien und Herzegowina 18 Language skills Extras Explore 1 Immigration, diversity and inclusion Nur zu Prüfzwecken – Eigentum des Verlags öbv

Self-assessment I can do this well. I can do this most of the time. I still need to work on this. „„talk about migration, diversity and inclusion „„say how you feel about past events in your life „„write a blog comment „„make deductions about the past „„describe strong feelings „„talk about cultural awareness „„write a leaflet „„write a questionnnaire / do a survey 19 Interaction (8–10 minutes): After your presentation, you talk to another student. In your conversation, you should: ■■ explain why you decided to take part in an exchange programme ■■ discuss the importance of cultural awareness in everyday and business life (see article below) ■■ evaluate the advantages of spending some time abroad for your future career Making sense of other cultures Cultural awareness is the basis of successful communication. It involves the ability to reflect on our own cultural values, beliefs and perceptions. Why do we do things in a certain way? How do we see the world? Cultural awareness is essential when we have to interact with people from other cultures. People see, interpret and evaluate things in different ways. What is considered appropriate behaviour in one culture is frequently inappropriate in another. Misunderstandings arise when I use my meanings to make sense of your reality. An Italian is likely to perceive US Americans as people who always work, talk about business over lunch and drink their coffee running along the street instead of enjoying it in a bar. Does this mean that Italians are lazy and Americans hyperactive? No, it means that the meaning people give to certain activities, like having lunch or dinner, varies in different cultures. In Italy, where relationships are highly valued, lunch, dinner or even coffee breaks have a social connotation: people get together to talk and get to know each other better. In the USA, where time is money, lunches can be part of closing a deal where people sign a contract over coffee. Misinterpretations occur primarily when we lack awareness of our own behavioural rules and project them onto others. We tend to make assumptions instead of finding out what a particular behaviour means to the person involved e.g. that looking straight into your face is regarded as disrespectful in Japan whereas in America avoiding eye-contact is associated with dishonesty. Becoming aware of our own cultural dynamics is a difficult task because culture is something we are not conscious of. Our experiences, values and cultural background lead us to see and do things in a certain way. Sometimes we would have to step outside our cultural boundaries in order to realise the impact our culture has on our behaviour. It helps to get feedback from foreign colleagues on their perceptions of our own behaviour to get more clarity on our cultural traits. Language skills Extras Explore 1 Immigration, diversity and inclusion Nur zu Prüfzwecken – Eigentum des Verlags öbv

RkJQdWJsaXNoZXIy ODE3MDE=